Standardized Nutritional Intervention in Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to a Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia
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Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present an increase in oxidative stress, characterized by the production of reactive oxygen species and a concomitant deficiency of antioxidants. There are multiple defense mechanisms including enzymatic scavengers and non-enzymatic molecules (glutathione and vitamins A, C, D, E, and zinc). Methods: In this observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study, we aimed to describe the clinical behavior of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 (those treated with a standardized nutritional intervention versus those who received the COVID-19 standard treatment available at the time). A total of 214 medical records of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 who required nutritional intervention were analyzed. Descriptive analyses of continuous and categorical variables were performed, and an ANOVA test was performed for numerical variables. A logistic regression model and a propensity score matching determined the differences between the matched groups. Findings: 33·6% of the patients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), 28·5% required invasive mechanical ventilation, and the overall mortality was 19·6%. 44·8% of the patients received the standardized nutritional intervention. There were no statistically significant differences between intervention groups, except for the intervention time, in which the standardized nutritional intervention (days) was identified as a protective factor OR=0·550 (p <0·05; CI=0·324-0·936). Conclusions: This is the first study in Colombia to consider a standardized nutritional intervention in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. Despite not being able to meet the primary objectives, controlled experiments must be carried out to determine the role and possible therapeutic effects of micro and macronutrients in patients with COVID-19.