Human immune response to SARS-CoV-2: What is known? A scoping review

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Ivon Johanna Rodriguez
Julián Chamucero Millares
Nicolás Lalinde Ruiz
Manuela Llano León
Laura Martínez Enríquez
María del Pilar Montilla Velásquez
Oscar Mauricio Rodríguez Bohórquez
Esteban Alejandro Velandia Vargas
Carlos Alberto Parra López


Monitoring literature on the broad spectrum of the human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is important to understand the mechanisms and progression of COVID-19. The present study undertakes a scoping review of the literature on human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 to determine the characteristics of innate and adaptive responses, as well as biomarkers and cells that play a role in the development of the infection. We searched papers in MEDLINE/PUBMED and EMBASE databases published since December 1st 2019 to to April 9th 2020 from which we selected 56 for this study. We found that the immune response is characterized by high levels of acute phase reactants, neutrophilia, low levels of NKs and eosinophils, lymphopenia, cytokine storm syndrome, exhausted T cells, impaired cytotoxic response, inadequate helper response and production of specific antibodies; concluding that immune dysregulation correlates with disease severity and high mortality.

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